the International Poetry Incarnation, Royal Albert Hall, June 11, 1965

‘…the Underground was suddenly there on the surface’
Jeff Nuttall, author

‘All these people recognised each other and they all realised they were part of the same scene.’
Barry Miles, author

“The poets were not given any running order and the evening ran with seemingly little structure. Adrian Mitchell read his popular poem, a rant against the Vietnam War – To Whom it May Concern to huge enthusiasm. Allen Ginsberg read New York Bird by Russian poet Andrei Vosnesensky; the poet was present but forbidden to perform by the Russian authorities. To round off the evening Ginsberg read two 2 of his long poems – The Change and Who Be Kind To.

The audience were handed flowers as they entered the arena which, full of a heavy-drinking crowd, quickly became filled with a marijuana smoke, flying paper darts and foliage.”-Royal Albert Hall website

“The International Poetry Incarnation encouraged a lurking underground movement to the surface of British culture, exposing the British public for the first time to the power of poetry as performance and as a vehicle for expressing political and social concerns. The event was formative in developing what would later become the UK underground scene.”-Royal Albert Hall website


Lawrence Ferlinghetti (USA/Italy/Portugal/France)
Michael Horovitz (Germany/England)
Gregory Corso (USA/Italy)
Harry Fainlight (USA/England)
Simon Vinkenoog (Netherlands)
Adrian Mitchell (England)
Christopher Logue (England)
Alexander Trocchi (Scotland/Italy)
Ernst Jandl (Austria)
Pete Brown (England)
Allen Ginsberg (USA)
John Esam (New Zealand)
Pablo Armando Fernández (Cuba)
Spike Hawkins (England)
Anselm Hollo (Finland)
Paolo Lionni (USA/Italy/Netherlands/Switzerland)
George Macbeth (Scotland)
Tom McGrath (Scotland)
Daniel Richter (USA)
William S. Burroughs* (USA)
Andrei Voznesensky* (Russia)
Pablo Neruda* (Chili)


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